High-level Architecture Design

The block diagram below outlines various components that come together to form the Unified Communications Interface (UCI):

  1. Adapter: An adapter translates between messages received from communication channels on specific providers and the internal XMessage format (followed by UCI). A new adapter is required for every new combination of communication channel and service provider (e.g. - WhatsApp + Gupshup; WhatsApp + NetCore; WhatsApp + Twilio). An adapter config references the communication channel, service provider and associated metadata such as a specific business account phone number.

  2. Transformer: A transformer is a stateless processing object that takes inputs and converts the input into a processed output. Transformers may in turn call external services if needed.

  3. Conversation Logic: Conversation logic defines the overall flow for a specific conversation. A conversation logic object references a sequence of transformers that will be applied to arrive at the final response at a specific point in the conversation and the associated adapter config for this conversation logic.

  4. User Segments: A bot can either be an open public bot or a closed targetted bot. In the latter case, a closed user segment has to be defined. User segment contains user data including a mechanism to fetch them from a federated user registry.

  5. Conversations: A conversation orchestrates a conversation with a specific conversation logic assigned to a set of users. A bot object references user segment(s) and conversation logic(s).

Following is a summary of the relation between the different blocks of UCI :

Adapter = Communication Channel + Service Provider

User segment


Conversation Logic = {Transformers} + Adapter

Bot = {Conversation Logics} + {User segments}

Real WorldUCI Platform

Set of end users in a state

User segment 1 containing user registry uri, user ids, user metadata including phone numbers

Single end user phone number part of the state (eg. 938490834)

User phone number field in user segment object


Communication Channel referenced in the Adapter 1 config


Service provider referenced in the Adapter 1 config

Business account phone number 908092348

Meta data for adapter 1, referenced in Adapter config

If fail, then this message

Transformer 1 referencing an XForm with pass/fail message logic

Translate message from English to Hindi

Transformer 2 referencing a translation microservice

Given fail, send message via Whatsapp to student

Conversation logic 1 = Transformer 1 + Transformer 2 + Adapter 1

Given fail, send same message via SMS to student

Conversation logic 2 = Transformer 1 + Transformer 2 + Adapter 2 (where adapter 2 config references SMS communication channel and SMS service provider)

Lifecycle of conversation

Conversation = Conversation logic 1 + Conversation logic 2 + User segment 1

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